Organic Macromolecules

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Organic Macromolecules

  1. 1. ORGANIC MACROMOLECULES•Macromolecule means “Giant Molecule” •Organic macromolecules are based on the “skeleton” of carbon •Life is based on Carbon for two reasons 1. Carbon is abundant in nature 2. Carbon has the ability to bond with itself and many other elements due to having only four electrons in its highest occupied energy level.
  2. 2. Carbon bonding
  3. 3. Polymerization  Macromolecules are built by linking smaller molecules (monomers) into long chains (polymers)  Monomers combine by disconnecting from some of the hydrogen and oxygen atoms between them  After the monomers bond, the excess oxygen and hydrogen atoms combine forming a water molecule  Since the bonding process releases water, we call it a dehydration reaction.
  4. 4. Pause, Think, and Share Think about the following… 1) What is a macromolecule? 2) How many bonds can carbon form? 3) What is the relationship between monomers and polymers? Discuss in Today’s Meet these questions.
  5. 5. What did you discuss? What is a macromolecule? A large molecule made of several smaller molecules How many bonds can carbon form? 4, because it only has 4 electrons in its outer shell. What is the relationship between monomers and polymers? Monomers bond together to form polymers
  6. 6. Press Pause, Think, and Write  Write down what was important? OneNote.  Be sure to include… 1) What a macromolecule is? 2) How many bonds can carbon form? 3) What the relationship between monomers and polymers is?
  7. 7. Types of Macromolecules •Carbohydrates: Sugars and Starches •Lipids: Fats and Oils (Think Fat Lip) •Proteins: Muscle tissue •Enzymes •Nucleic Acids: Microscopic genetic material (information)
  8. 8. Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides  Carbohydrates are used for energy  The monomers of carbohydrates make up a simple sugar C6H12O6.  These simple sugars are called monosaccharides  All monosaccharides have the same molecular formula just different shapes  Examples 1. Glucose 2. Fructose 3. Galactose
  9. 9. Examples of Monosaccharides Please notice the shape!!
  10. 10. Carbohydrates: Disaccharides  Disaccharide = (two) double sugar  They are made by joining two monosaccharides  Examples (all made by joining two sugar molecules) 1. Sucrose: table sugar 2. Maltose: grain sugar 3. Lactose: milk sugar
  11. 11. Example Again, notice the shape of the sugars. Very common shape.
  12. 12. Carbohydrates: Polysaccharides  Polysaccharide= many sugars  This is a long chain of monosaccharides  Examples: 1. Starch: Grain foods 2. Cellulose: Plant fibers
  13. 13. Pause, Think, and Share Think about the following… 1) What is the general structure of a carbohydrate? 2) What are the three types of carbohydrates and describe their structure? 3) What are the functions of carbohydrates in living things? Discuss in Today’s Meet
  14. 14. What did you discuss? What is the general structure of a carbohydrate C6H12O6 What are the three types of carbohydrates and describe their structure? Monosaccharide= 1 sugar Disaccharide= 2 sugars Polysaccharide= 3 or more sugars What are the functions of carbohydrates in living things? Provides quick immediate source of energy
  15. 15. Press Pause, Think, and Write  Write down what was important?  Be sure to include… 1) What is the general structure of a carbohydrate? 2) What are the three types of carbohydrates and describe their structure? 3) What are the functions of carbohydrates in living things?
  16. 16. Lipids  Lipids are made mostly of carbon and hydrogen and oxygen  Water-avoiding molecules= hydrophobic  Lipids are used in three ways  Long term energy storage  Cushion of organs  Skeleton of plasma membrane around cells  Consist of two monomers bonded together 1. Glycerol 2. Fatty acids (contains hydrocarbon chains)
  17. 17. Lipids
  18. 18. Types of Lipids  If there is at least one carbon to carbon bond that is a double bond in a fatty acid chain.  When each carbon atom in the fatty acid chain is joined to another carbon by a single bond. Unsaturated: liquid at room temperature Saturated: solid at room temperature
  19. 19. Pause, Think, and Share Think about the following… 1) What are the two monomers that make up lipids? 2) How are saturated and unsaturated lipids different? 3) What are the functions of lipids in living things? Post your answers to these questions in Today’s Meet.
  20. 20. What did you discuss? What are the two monomers that make up lipids? Glycerol and fatty acids How are saturated and unsaturated lipids different? Saturated lipids are solid at room temperature and have the maximum number of hydrogen atoms bonded to the carbon atoms. Unsaturated lipids are liquid at room temperature and have a double or triple bond on the carbon atoms. What are the functions of lipids in living things? Long term energy storage and cushion for organs Skeleton for plasma membrane in cells
  21. 21. Name these macromolecules and their function
  22. 22. Proteins  Proteins contain nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen and carbon  Extremely long polymers of monomers called amino acids  Responsible for almost all of our day to day functions  Used for muscles, act as hormones and enzymes, and do much of the work inside body cells
  23. 23. •Amino acids are linked together in a chain called a polypeptide •The polypeptides are precisely twisted, folded. And coiled into a unique shape Building a Protein
  24. 24. Proteins up close and personal  All amino acids have three of the central carbon’s partners the same and then of side group that is different  The amino acids combine to form polypeptides which then fold into precise shapes
  25. 25. Press Pause, Think, and Share Think about the following… 1) What are the monomers for proteins 2) What is the relationship between an amino acid, polypeptide, and protein? 3) What are the functions of proteins in living things? Share your answers in Today’s Meet.
  26. 26. What did you discuss? What are the monomers for proteins Amino acids What is the relationship between an amino acid, polypeptide, and protein? Amino acids are linked together in a chain called a polypeptide. The polypeptides are precisely twisted, folded, and coiled into a unique shape whichs forms the protein. What are the functions of proteins in living things? Used for muscles, act as hormones and enzymes, and do much of the work inside body cells. Video on: Carbs(Sugars), Lipids(fats), and Proteins: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H8WJ2KENlK0
  27. 27. Nucleic Acids  Monomer= Nucleotides  Nucleotides have three parts  Sugar  Phosphate group  Nitrogen Base
  28. 28. Nucleic Acids  Many nucleotides come together to form the polymer nucleic acids  Examples= RNA and DNA Functions= Hold our genetic information
  29. 29. WHY DOES THIS HAPPEN?  Bananas turn brown when left outside after a while because certain chemicals in the fruit react with the oxygen in the air by destroying cells, creating that icky brown color.  An Enzyme speeds this reaction up!
  30. 30. Enzymes  Unique type of protein  Speeds up chemical reactions by lowering the energy needed to start the chemical reaction (activation energy)  Specific shape for specific reactions  Can be used over and over again Watch Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r1ryDVgx0zw
  31. 31. Let’s Recap Macromolecule Structure (Monomer) Function Carbohydrate Monosaccharide C6H12O6 • Short-term energy Lipids Glycerol and Fatty Acids • Energy storage • Cushion for organs • Barriers Proteins Amino acids • Muscles • Speeds up chemical reactions (enzymes) • Transports things • Makes hormones
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