Cloning and Genetic Engineering

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Cloning & Genetic Engineering

  1. 1. CLONING OR GENETIC MODIFICATION What’s the difference?
  2. 2. In the novel Jurassic Park by Michael Crichton: • Scientists used ancient dinosaur DNA trapped in amber to clone extinct species. • The cloned dinosaurs eventually became uncontrollable and the scientists abandoned their project, sacrificing many lives along with their investment. https://www.flickr.com/photos/ffg/3113602118/ Dave Walker/CC.BY.2.0
  3. 3. Recap! • How did the solve the problem of missing segments of DNA? • They filled it in with frog DNA • How is it possible to put frog DNA into Dinosaur DNA? • The genetic code is universal http://images.cdn.fotopedia.com/flickr-457428714-original.jpg Scott Kinmartin CC.BY.2.0
  4. 4. What is Cloning? Clones are organisms that are exact genetic copies. Every single bit of their DNA is identical. Clones can happen naturally—identical twins are just one of many examples. Or they can be made in the lab. Have you ever cut a sample from a plant? Click here to read more information on cloning and watch some animations. http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/co ntent/cloning/whatiscloning/
  5. 5. How?? How do they get the DNA to clone an organism? Do you think the age of the cell matters? If your pet turtle dies tomorrow, and you clone it, will it look and act exactly like your pet turtle that died?
  6. 6. Many organisms have been cloned in the past 50 years with varying success • Mice, cattle, sheep, cat, deer, dog, horse, mule, ox, rabbit and rat, and a rhesus monkey have all been cloned. • Some lived longer than others. • Dolly the sheep (cloned in 1996) only lived about 6 years. Courtesy: National Human Genome Research Institute http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dolly_%28sheep%29 Steven Walling/CC. BY-SA 2.0
  7. 7. Genetic Modification • Defined as changing the genes of an organism using biotechnology. • Usually involves one gene, or a few genes, that contain instructions for a specific trait. • This has an effect on the resulting trait in the organism. • Can be used to replace or repair existing genes, or introduce brand new genes for new traits. • Click here for some more information http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/genetherapy/gtintro/
  8. 8. Genetically Modified Organisms http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:GloFish.jpg CC.BY.2.0 Glofish and Green Luminescent Mice http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:VegCorn.jpg CC.BY.2.0 Sweet Corn http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetically_modified_food#mediaviewer/File:Papaya_sunset.jpg Hawaiian Papaya • Some modified traits are easily visible like these glowing animals. • And some modified traits are not easy to see, such as the disease resistance introduced to these fruits and vegetables
  9. 9. Cloning vs. Genetic Modification • Cloning humans is currently not allowed by law in any country on Earth. • Genetic modification is currently used to replace or repair mutated genes or to add new traits to an organism.
  10. 10. Think about the following… Turn to your shoulder partner and talk about these points. Press Pause, Think, & Share 1) Compare cloning and genetic modification. 2) Contrast between cloning and genetic modification.
  11. 11. Time to Write • Make three columns in your OneNote like below • Fill in with the information that was discussed. Cloning Both Genetic Modification
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