Biotechnology GM Crops and Foods

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GM Foods

  1. 1. GeneticallyGenetically Modified FoodsModified Foods
  2. 2. What is a GeneticallyWhat is a Genetically Modified (GM) Food?Modified (GM) Food?  Foods that contain an added geneFoods that contain an added gene sequencesequence  Foods that have a deleted geneFoods that have a deleted gene sequencesequence  Animal products from animals fed GMAnimal products from animals fed GM feedfeed  Products produced by GM organismsProducts produced by GM organisms
  3. 3. Why are foodsWhy are foods genetically modified?genetically modified? Genetic engineering offers a rapidGenetic engineering offers a rapid and precise method of alteringand precise method of altering organisms as compared toorganisms as compared to traditional methods that are slowtraditional methods that are slow and inaccurate.and inaccurate.
  4. 4. Common GM FoodsCommon GM Foods  VegetablesVegetables  TomatoesTomatoes  PotatoesPotatoes  RiceRice  CheeseCheese  MeatMeat
  5. 5. How is geneticHow is genetic modification possible?modification possible?  The components ofThe components of DNA are the sameDNA are the same in all organisms.in all organisms. *Remember this*Remember this from last unit???from last unit???  Sequences thatSequences that code for proteinscode for proteins can be moved fromcan be moved from one organism toone organism to another.another.
  6. 6. How can DNA be movedHow can DNA be moved from one organism tofrom one organism to another?another? ►Find an organism with the desired trait ►Isolate the gene sequence that codes for the desired trait ►Insert the gene sequence into the genome of the plant cell
  7. 7. How can DNA be movedHow can DNA be moved from one organism tofrom one organism to another?another? Its quite simple, REALLY!!!
  8. 8. How can DNA be movedHow can DNA be moved from one organism tofrom one organism to another?another? ►Allow the genetically altered cell to grow into a plant ►Allow the plant to reproduce
  9. 9. How can DNA be movedHow can DNA be moved from one organism tofrom one organism to another?another?  A vector canA vector can carry DNA. Thecarry DNA. The vector can be avector can be a pellet from apellet from a gene gun.gene gun. Viruses andViruses and bacteria alsobacteria also can be utilizedcan be utilized to transferto transfer genes.genes.Watch the clip to demonstrate the process. http://www.dnalc.org/view/15476-Mechanism-of-Recombination-3D-animation-with-with-basic-narration.html
  10. 10. Possible BenefitsPossible Benefits of GM Foodsof GM Foods  Easing of worldEasing of world hungerhunger  Development of cropsDevelopment of crops that can be grown inthat can be grown in marginal soilmarginal soil  Reduced strain onReduced strain on nonrenewablenonrenewable resourcesresources  Development of droughtDevelopment of drought resistant cropsresistant crops  Development of salt-Development of salt- tolerant cropstolerant crops  Development of cropsDevelopment of crops that make more efficientthat make more efficient use of nitrogen and otheruse of nitrogen and other nutrientsnutrients
  11. 11. Possible BenefitsPossible Benefits of GM Foodsof GM Foods  Reduced use ofReduced use of pesticides andpesticides and herbicidesherbicides ►Development ofDevelopment of pest resistant cropspest resistant crops ►Reduced herbicideReduced herbicide use is better for theuse is better for the environment andenvironment and reduces costs forreduces costs for farmersfarmers
  12. 12. Possible BenefitsPossible Benefits of GM Foodsof GM Foods  Improved crop qualityImproved crop quality  Development of frost resistantDevelopment of frost resistant cropscrops  Development of diseaseDevelopment of disease resistant cropsresistant crops  Development of floodDevelopment of flood resistant cropsresistant crops  Improved nutritionalImproved nutritional qualityquality  Development of foods designedDevelopment of foods designed to meet specific nutritional goalsto meet specific nutritional goals
  13. 13. Who makes sure GMWho makes sure GM foods are safe?foods are safe?  GovernmentGovernment agencies regulateagencies regulate GM foodsGM foods  GM foods in theGM foods in the United States areUnited States are required to be labeledrequired to be labeled only if the nutritionalonly if the nutritional value is changed or avalue is changed or a new allergen isnew allergen is introduced.introduced.
  14. 14. Possible RisksPossible Risks of GM Foodsof GM Foods  Insects mightInsects might develop resistancedevelop resistance to pesticide-to pesticide- producing GMproducing GM cropscrops  Herbicide-tolerantHerbicide-tolerant crops may cross-crops may cross- pollinate weeds,pollinate weeds, resulting inresulting in “superweeds””superweeds”
  15. 15. Possible RisksPossible Risks for GM Foodsfor GM Foods  Certain geneCertain gene products may beproducts may be allergens, thusallergens, thus causing harm tocausing harm to human healthhuman health  There may beThere may be unintended harm tounintended harm to wildlife andwildlife and beneficial insectsbeneficial insects Photo courtesy of T. W. Davies, Cal. Acad. of Sciences.
  16. 16. Time to ThinkTime to Think • What is a genetically modified food? • What are some benefits of genetically modified foods? • What are some possible risks of genetically modified food?
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